It is one of the dreaded disorders which results in painful periods due to endometrium (lining of the uterus) growing outside the uterus. It may involve fallopian tubes, ovaries, pelvic organs and even spread beyond it.

The patient of endometriosis presents with

1) Painful periods

2) Pain while keeping intercourse

3) Pain while passing urine or stools

4) Excessive bleeding during periods

5) Infertility.

The cause of endometriosis has been based on various theories yet there is no specific cause that has been pin pointed but the common beliefs are due to retrograde menstruation, immune system disorders, surgical scar implants, changes in the origin of cells and cell transport mechanisms.
Though diagnosing this disorder becomes difficult as there is no specific investigation which can actually diagnose this condition, the only way an endometriosis can be confirmed is by performing a laparoscopy and visualizing the changes of endometriosis

As the disorder manifests in different ways, the treatment depends on what the symptoms of the patient is.

The treatment modalities involve

1) Pain management- with various pain killers

2) Hormonal treatments with hormonal pills and injections. The main issues associated with the hormonal pills are that they have to

be taken daily over a period of time and hence the compliance becomes an issue

3) Fertility enhancing surgeries like clearing the adhesions surrounding the tubes and removal of large chocolate cysts from the ovaries.

4) Lastly removal of uterus and ovaries and clearing the residual disease when the patient’s family has been completed.