PCOS or the polycystic ovarian syndrome is a disorder affecting around 8-13% of the women in the reproductive age group. It is a hormone related disorder which is characterized by:
1) irregular periods.
2) Excessive male hormones in the body which may be manifested clinically or in the blood reports.
3) Sonography suggestive of multiple small follicles arranged in the ovaries. It has a multifactorial cause, ranging from the genetic and hereditary factors to insulin resistance.
Though most of the young girls undergoing a routine ultrasound for any reason whatsoever may have a sonographic picture suggestive of PCOS doesn’t label the girl as a PCOS. For someone to be labelled as a PCOS, she should fulfil 2 of the 3 symptoms listed above. It is important to make a diagnosis of PCOS as this disorder has further issues related to it like:
3) Pregnancy induced Diabetes
4) Diabetes Mellitus
5) Metabolic syndromes.
The treatment of PCOS depends on the age group or the symptoms we are dealing with. In an unmarried girl with irregular periods and androgenic manifestations we can offer
1) lifestyle modification that is adequate exercise and less carbohydrate diet
2) Cyclical hormonal pills which may include along with anti-androgens
3) Insulin sensitizers
In a woman desiring fertility we may have to start with ovulation induction medicines as most of the PCOS have anovulatory cycles, along with other regimens like IUI and IVF.