Male Factors Of Infertility


The brunt of infertility is equally borne by males too. Most of the cases of male infertility goes unnoticed due to lack of symptoms however there are certain markers like problems with the sexual functions, pain, lump or swelling in the testicular areas and abnormal semen parameters gives some red flags.

The conditions associated commonly with male infertility are

1) Varicocele

The swelling of the veins which supply the testes causing abnormal temperature regulation around them. Varicocele leads to abnormal structure and motility of sperms.

2) Infections

Sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea, tuberculosis and mumps may cause inflammation of testes (orchitis) and epididymis (epididymitis).

3) Ejaculation issues

Some men with organic causes, spinal cord injuries may have ejaculation issues. Some men have retrograde ejaculation that is the sperms enter the bladder rather than the tip of the penis during orgasms, which result in azoospermia that is absence of sperms in semen.

4) Tumors

Cancers affecting testes as well as pituitary results in male infertility. Surgeries and radiation along with certain chemotherapy agents used to treat these cancers causes infertility.

5) Defects in vas-tubal

Defects in vas-tubal structure transporting the sperms from testes to the penis Blocked vas due to infections, trauma, abnormal development and certain genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis results in aspermia or azoospermia, commonly termed as obstructive azoospermia.

6) Problems with sexual intercourse

Erectile dysfunction, painful ejaculation, premature ejaculations, anatomical conditions of penis wherein the urethra opens below the penis –condition called as hypospadias, all cause difficulty in cohabitation which further result in difficult intercourse and further infertility.

7) Certain medications

Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use by bodybuilders and athletes, cancer medications (chemotherapy), certain antifungal medications and certain other medications can impair sperm production and decrease male fertility.

8) Surgeries

Certain surgeries may prevent you from having sperm in your ejaculate, including vasectomy, inguinal hernia repairs, scrotal or testicular surgeries, prostate surgeries and large abdominal surgeries performed for testicular and rectal cancers. In most cases, surgery can be performed to either reverse these blockages or to retrieve sperm directly from the epididymis and testicles.

9) Overheating of the testes

Elevated temperatures impair sperm production and function. Although studies are limited and are inconclusive, frequent use of saunas or hot tubs may temporarily impair your sperm counts. Sitting for long periods, wearing tight clothing or working on a laptop computer for long stretches of time also may increase the temperature in your scrotum and may slightly reduce sperm production. Dr. Parzan has also articles in the daily newspapers to support these theories

10) Alcohol and Tobacco

Alcohol causes erectile dysfunctions, decreased libido and decreased sperm production. Tobacco on the other hand affects the semen parameters affecting the sperm counts and motility.

11) Stress and depression

Affects sexual dysfunction and semen parameters and further causes a vicious cycle of infertility-stress-infertility.